Reading and Note-making for Graduate Students

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Self-reflection and introductionI. SpeedII. ComprehensionIII. Critical readingIV. RetentionV. VolumeVI. Focus and ConcentrationVII. Reducing Stress
Self-reflection and introduction

Self-reflection questions

  • How strong are my reading skills?
  • Am I reading fast enough?
  • Do I read with a critical eye?
  • Do I manage the vast amount of information I need to read?

Introduction

And you thought you had a lot to read in your undergrad program. Welcome to Grad School!

A true story: When I was doing my Master’s one of my professors passed me a book which had nothing to do with his course or my field of study. He said gleefully, “I’ve been reading this interesting book. I thought you might enjoy it, too,” and shoved it into my reticent hands. What a position he had put me in. On the one hand, I felt obligated to read this book since he had chosen ME to read it. On the other hand, I was so swamped and overwhelmed with my own reading that the thought of having to open the front cover of this book made me feel nauseous.

Unlike undergraduate courses where some students do minimal reading and still succeed, graduate studies require a student to read large volumes of information. Reading at graduate school is the way in which students glean new ideas, theories, models, etc. that inform their theses and research papers. Grad students are asked to actively engage with the information they read. For example, a literature review requires a student to read with great breadth and depth within his/her research area and then synthesize the ideas into a unified whole. The number of documents to read, analyze, and synthesize to compile a literature review can be mindboggling. So consider organizing a chunk of time each day to read. Daily reading will help you stay on top of your ‘in-tray’, thereby reducing stress and helping to maintain motivation.

To succeed in graduate school, you must have strong academic reading skills. Take a minute to assess your reading skills. See our Reading Self-Assessment.

Reading issues

This module covers the following issues related to reading:

  1. Speed
  2. Comprehension
  3. Critical Reading
  4. Retention/Recall
  5. Volume of Reading
  6. Focus & Concentration
  7. Reducing Stress
Being aware of yourself as a reader

Being aware of yourself as a reader

Issues

It’s important to be aware of your style, knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the text you are about to read.

Before you start reading, reflect on the following 4 areas:

1.   Learning Style

Your learning style is your preferred way of understanding the world, not your only or best way of learning.

Ask yourself: What is my personal learning style and how can I use my style to help me read better?

You can determine your own learning style by using a free on-line assessment tool such as the  Index of Learning Styles, the VAK test, or the Myers-Briggs Inventory.

You can also take our own Learning Styles & Approaches to Reading tool. Visit the Academic Reading module (for undergraduate students) and find our tool entitled Learning Styles & Approaches to Reading in the pdf.

2.   Background knowledge/schema

 How much background knowledge do I have of the topic?

3.   Attitude

 What is my attitude to the reading? e.g. Do I feel motivated? Do I feel like putting it off?

4.   Concentration and focusing

 How well will I be able to concentrate and focus on the reading?

Myths about rapid reading

Myths about rapid reading

  1. If you increase your reading speed, your comprehension will be reduced. Good readers score high on both speed and comprehension. But, it takes time and practice to get there.
  2. Thorough “work” reading has to be slow. On the contrary, slow reading is dull and discouraging and provides few rewards. Slow readers miss the overall meaning of the material.
  3. Skimming isn’t real Skimming IS reading. It is a vital part of rapid reading. It‘s the technique to apply when you are looking for something specific and/ or you want an overview of the whole document.
  4. If you don’t comprehend the first time or lose concentration, immediately reread. Going back to recheck what you have understood is very inefficient. It stops you from reading actively and anticipating what is coming next.
  5. Technical documents cant be read rapidly. Technical documents lend themselves to rapid reading as these documents often give background info that the reader doesn’t need.
  6. Rapid reading of everything is boring. You don’t read everything at the same rate or intensity: you need to adjust your speed in accordance with the nature and content of the material.
  7. When you read, you need to remember everything. Total recall is an impossible task and this attitude can stop you from trying to read at all. You need to set your goals for reading and determine what you need and don‘t need to remember.

Source: Redway, K. (1992). How to be a Rapid Reader. Chicago: National Textbook Co.

The average university student reads at around 250 to 350 words per minute on fiction and non- technical materials. A “good” reading speed is around 500 to 700 words per minute. Some people can read 1000 words per minute or more on these materials. To find out how fast you read, take the Increase Your Speed: Reading Speed Test.

What determines reading rate

  1. Purpose – e.g. to understand information, for example, skim or scan at a rapid rate; to determine the value of material or to read for enjoyment, read rapidly or slowly according to your feeling; to read analytically, read at a moderate pace that permits you to interrelate ideas.
  2. Nature and difficulty – depends on background knowledge and complexity of material
  3. Internal structure – rate adjustment according to difficulty
What slows you down and what speeds you up

What slows you down?

Fixating and regressing

Experiments with slow readers show that not only do these readers look at every word (called ‘fixation’), their eyes jump back to previously seen words (called ‘regression’).

small arrows moving to the right, one large arrow above moving two arrows to the left“I am looking at each word while I read this sentence.”

What else slows you down?

  • Inability to distinguish important from unimportant information
  • Fears e.g. losing comprehension
  • Poor attention and concentration
  • Passive reading
  • Habitual slow reading
  • Subvocalization – e.g. hearing the words in your head and even saying the words under your breath (but it has its advantages)

What speeds you up?

Training your eyes

Humans have very good peripheral vision. In fact we can see about 180 degrees from a point in front of our eyes. Peripheral vision was necessary in ancient times to protect ourselves from predators. Even though we no longer need to fend off Sabre-toothed tigers, our peripheral vision is just as important today as it was thousands of years ago. This ability allows us to read more words than those you are looking directly at. Once you understand your eyes’ patterns and build your reading confidence, you will no longer feel the urge to fixate on each word or regress and your reading speed will increase.

To speed up you‘ll need to:

  • increase the number of words in each block
  • reduce fixation time (¼ second per block or chunk of words is adequate)
  • reduce regression

small arrows to the right“I am looking at large groups of words in this sentence and don’t regress.”

Speed strategies

Speed strategies

Conditioning your eyes

  1. Use a pacer or See Speed Reading: Using a Pacer.
  2. Window Slot Technique

If you struggle with erratic eye movements, (i.e. your eyes jump around on the page and can‘t follow a left to right, line by line pattern), try using the ―window slot technique. Use a postcard or thick cardboard and cut out the centre in the shape and size of one line of print. As you run the window down the page, the eye is limited to horizontal movements only. This technique is useful for all readers and particularly useful for readers who suffer from dyslexia or other reading challenges.

Skimming

Remember: SKIMMING IS READING. Skimming is taking mental notes of the outline/presentation of the material, picking up what stands out, and surveying headings and keywords.

For more information on Skimming, visit the Reading and Note-taking module (for undergraduate students) and use the Skimming: A Checklist tool in the pdf.

Building your vocabulary

  • Play/do word games and puzzles
  • Read lots and widely
  • Make a personal dictionary of new terms, jargon, phrases
  • For second language speakers of English, vocabulary acquisition, both academic and non-academic, is an ongoing and daily process. Strive to learn a few new words each week. Reading to your kids can also be a fun and easy way to pick up useful vocabulary.

Other techniques to improve reading speed

  • Improve concentration
  • Improve memory and recall
  • Reduce subvocalization
  • Reduce interruptions, procrastination and stress
Types of Comprehension

II. Comprehension

Good comprehension involves:

  • Being able to select and understand what you need
  • Retaining and recalling the information
  • Linking the new information to existing information

Comprehension is affected by:

  • Level of difficulty, complexity, and even interest
  • Background knowledge
  • Jargon, new vocabulary
  • Knowledge of English language structure

Types of reading comprehension

According to Makau (1990) there are 3 types of reading:

  1. Content reading — understanding the information
  2. Empathic reading — understanding the spirit of the message
  3. Critical reading — combines the first two with analysis and evaluation

 

Source: Makau, J. (1990). Reasoning and communication: Thinking critically about arguments. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Comprehension strategies

Comprehension strategies

SQ4R: Survey, Question, Read, React, Recite, Review

The SQ4R assists university students to read more effectively and efficiently. SQ4R is a powerful approach that incorporates a number of reading skills and techniques such as skimming, elaborating, note-making, and reciting.

To see how SQ4R can be applied to textbook reading, visit the Reading and Note-taking module (for undergraduate students) and see the “SQ4R for Textbook Reading” and “Mindmap of SQ4R” tools in the pdf.

SQ4R can also be applied to any written genres such as research papers. See Using SQ4R to Read a Research Paper.

 

Reading research papers

One of the common sources of information at grad school is the research paper as they are the means by which a student learns new contributions to his/her field. Because a research paper adheres to a strict format (i.e. introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion), on the surface they might appear easy to read. However, their condensed style (due to page limitations and assumed knowledge of audience) requires strong reading comprehension skills. Alongside general comprehension of the information provided, the reader needs to analyze and critique the thesis, determine the reliability and validity of the research data, and judge whether the paper is worthy of further attention. To do so requires critical thinking, which is covered in the next section.

See Using Guiding Questions to Assist with Reading a Research Paper and How to Read Research Papers.

Critical reading

III. Critical reading

In graduate school you will need to read critically most of the time, so it’s important that you understand how to approach a text with a critical eye. Critical reading involves evaluating and judging the accuracy of statements and the soundness of the reasoning that leads to conclusions.

Critical reading raises many questions such as:

  • Who/what is the author/source? Is the author/source credible? What are the author’s purposes?
  • Is the information relevant to the context?
  • What are the author’s conclusions?
  • Does the author provide adequate support for the conclusion? What questions are the author trying to solve/answer?
  • What are the author’s underlying assumptions and are they warranted? What inferences has the writer made and are they justified?

What to consider when reading critically:

  1. Underlying assumptions
  2. The argument
  3. Evaluating an argument
1. Underlying Assumptions

Critical reading strategies

1. Underlying assumptions

Authors rarely explicitly state all that they wish to communicate especially when they assume that their ‘audience’ has certain background knowledge, attitudes, and values. Therefore, it is the reader’s job to be aware of the implicit messages.

For practice in detecting underlying assumptions see Critical Reading – Underlying Assumptions.

2. The argument

Critical reading strategies

2. The argument

What is an “argument”? People present arguments to persuade others to accept claims.

Components of a claim flowchart Claim, premise (reason), conclusion

  1. Claim: a statement representing some event or idea about the way the world is or should be.  You distinguish a claim from other statements if you can ask, “Is this statement true or false?”
  2. Premise: reasons/evidence to support a claim. Arguments can have 1 or more premises.
  3. Conclusion: the claim being defended by the reasons or evidence. (Do not confuse this with the other usage of ‘conclusion’ to mean the last part of an essay or presentation).

Therefore, an argument occurs when a claim is made and premises are put forward to justify a conclusion as true.

The arrangement for an argument is often (but not always) Premise 1 + Premise 2 + Premise 3 etc. → THEREFORE + Conclusion

What the difference between an argument and an explanation?

 Explanation = claims are offered to make another claim understandable, i.e., to say why or how it is true.

For a practice exercise see The Argument.

Indicator words

An indicator word indicates the presence of an argument and helps us determine what role the statement plays in the argument, i.e., either premise or conclusion. Some indicator words come before the premise; others come before the conclusion. Indicator words are NOT part of the content, but serve to signal which statements are premises and which are conclusions. They indicate the direction of the reasons in the argument. Learning these words and their meanings will help you spot an argument more quickly.

For practice with indicator words, see The Argument – Indicator Words.

Degrees of Support (or degrees of validity)

Arguments must be valid which means the conclusion follows logically from the reasons given. Depending on the writer’s goal, differing degrees of validity are used to persuade the reader to support his/her argument. A critical reader needs to be aware to what extent the author is providing support for his/her argument.

Degrees of support/validity:

Degrees of Support/Validity: Nil, Weak, Moderate, Strong, Deductively Valid

 

Nil. Even if all the given reasons are true, they would provide no justification whatsoever for the conclusion. (aka a faulty conclusion or non sequitur)

Weak. If the given reasons are true, they would provide a small amount of support for the conclusion, but certainly not enough to justify accepting the conclusion as true. In other words, the reasons are logical, but NOT compelling enough to make it ‘a good bet’.

Moderate. Between strong and weak. If the reasons are true, they do not establish the truth of the conclusion, but they make the truth of the conclusion a ‘live possibility’ worth further consideration and investigation.

Strong. If the reasons are true, then they make the truth of the conclusion extremely likely, but not totally guaranteed. In other words, you would stake something of great value on the truth of the conclusion.

Deductively valid. If the reasons are true, then there is no possible way in which the conclusion can be false.

Source: Allen, M. (1997). Smart thinking: skills for critical understanding and writing. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

For practice in distinguishing degrees of support see The Argument: Degrees of Support.

3. Evaluating the argument

Critical reading strategies

3. Evaluating the argument

One important aspect of critical reading is our ability to evaluate arguments, i.e., to judge and assess an argument‘s persuasiveness. If you are persuaded by an argument, you will accept it based on the strengths of the reasons provided.

When is an argument a ‘good’ one?

 Arguing a conclusion based on premises is a natural human activity. In a good argument the ‘arguer’ puts forward 3 assertions:

  1. She asserts the premises.
  2. She asserts that IF the premises are true (or acceptable) then the conclusion is true (or acceptable).
  3. She asserts the conclusion.

Someone who offers a ‘good’ argument is giving you REASONS and EVIDENCE to accept their claim. Therefore, if you look only at the conclusion and accept or reject it without looking at the reasons (premises), you are ignoring the argument.

 

Adapted: Govier, T. (1992). A practical study of argument. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.

See Good & Bad Arguments for examples.

Three criteria for evaluating arguments

  1. Terms are clearly defined. Writers and readers need to agree on what is meant by the key terms. Without agreement on terms, the argument‘s validity can by questioned.
  2. Information is used fairly. The information used to support the argument is correct and current. It avoids distorting the facts or being one-sided, i.e., both sides of the argument are represented.
  3. The argument is logical. Arguments can be biased but NOT fallacious. To determine if an argument is logical,
    • consider the ‘grounds’ on which it was based, e.g., personal knowledge, reliable expert opinion, common knowledge, reliable testimony, common sense
    • look closely at the claims to make sure they are not fallacious

Source: Behrens L. & Rosen L. (2005). Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. NY: Pearson/Longman.

Avoiding logical fallacies and reading critically

Avoiding logical fallacies

A logical fallacy is faulty logic used in writing or speaking. There are many types of fallacies. You need to be able to recognize them when you read and avoid using them in your writing. See  Some Common Logical Fallacies.

Practice reading critically

Use the Critical Reading Checklist of guided questions to assist you in reading more critically.

Retention

Retention

61% of what you read is lost after the first hour and 100% is lost after 24 hours unless…you revisit the information.

The strategies you choose to assist you in remembering are a matter of preference and learning style. You might find one strategy that works very well for you; however, we recommend using multiple modalities (e.g. many senses) to increase retention and recall.

Retention Strategies

Retention strategies

Note-making

There are many different types of note-making strategies. See Note-making Strategies.

Cornell System

The Cornell system produces an excellent note from which you can review ideas. It incorporates a section for traditional notes with a ‘Cue Column’ and a ‘Summary’ section. The Cue Column, on the left of the page, allows the note-maker to write key terms, concepts, sequences, and/or questions that will cue the brain to remember the detail notes. The bottom section of the page is reserved for a brief summary which is very useful when reviewing notes.

It can be used very effectively with the SQ4R system. At the ‘Q’ step of SQ4R, the note-maker writes down his/her question in the ‘Cue Column’. Questions in the Cue Column are then used in the revision and review stages. The Cue Column can be easily folded over to hide the notes thus acting as a natural self-test mechanism.

For more information, including examples, see the Active Reading and Note-making module (for undergraduate students). Find the Cornell System in the pdf.

Mind Mapping

Why might you choose to make a concept or mind map as your note?

First of all, consider your learning styles: visual, auditory, and tactile. Learners who are visual and/or tactile will benefit from constructing a graphic map of the information read. Visual learners like to see a visual representation of the reading materials while tactile learners like to do something when they read. For visual learners, mind mapping appeals to their love of images, pictures, and colours. For tactile learners, constructing a mind map while reading keeps you active so you don‘t lose concentration and focus. They are fun to make and can be easily redrawn for review purposes. Irrespective your learning style, all readers can benefit from concept/ mind mapping as this type of note making requires the reader to distinguish main ideas from details. It is, therefore, a particularly useful method to employ if you are a reader who ‘gets lost in the detail’.

For more information, including examples, see the Active Reading and Note-making module (for undergraduate students). Find Note-making with Mindmaps and Combining Cornell and Mindmaps in the pdf.

Visual Techniques

Some visual learners like to highlight text with colour. Colours can aid comprehension and retention if employed effectively. For example, each colour represents a different type of detail: one colour for main ideas/themes, another colour for subordinate ideas, etc. Some readers   who use mind maps as a note-making tool connect the coloured text to the same colours on their mind map.

However, use highlighting sparingly. Why? Highlighting can be used as a procrastination tactic so you can avoid really understanding and working with the text. Highlighting is usually about marking what you should learn versus learning it now!

Auditory Techniques

Reading & Reciting Out loud

Auditory learners (note the person who mutters under his/her breath while reading) don‘t need to be told that reading out loud is a helpful strategy as they do so naturally. If you are not a strong auditory learner, we still recommend trying to recite out loud some of the time as research indicates it has a positive effect on retention. For information on the importance of reading and reciting out loud, see Why You Should Read Out Loud? in our module on  Active Reading and Note-making (for undergraduate students).

Listening to “Memory” Music

Studies have shown that certain high-frequency music accelerates learning and improves memory. In particular, music of the Baroque period and classical Eastern instruments such as the sitar from India and the koto harp from Japan has positive effects on learning and memory.

For more information about memory music, see Super Memory Music.

How to deal with all the reading?

V. Volume

How to deal with all the reading?

Keep on Top of the Pile: On your daily schedule, set aside a block of time called ‘Reading’, preferably at the same time each day so you become habituated to a reading routine.

Reduce Volume to essential things and then read them in the way appropriate to that specific task

Read for Purpose: e.g. get an overview; read to do an assignment; read for studying (reading to access information), in-depth insight into a theory, argument, process; prepare for a seminar

Don’t Panic: Don‘t let the reading list on the syllabus scare you. Professors don‘t expect you to read it all. They are simply giving you additional reference, insights into topic, etc.

Tips for focus and concentration

VI. Focus and Concentration

  • Minimize distractions e.g. email, kids
  • Know your best concentration span for reading and stick to it and then take a break. Try the 50-10-50 technique: 50 minutes reading, 10 minute break, 50 minutes reading.
  • Don’t try to read when tired
  • If you are a kinesthetic /tactile learner, you need to DO something while you read.

For more information and strategies to help with focus and concentration, see Ideas Just Sweep Me Away: How to Stay On-Task While Reading.

You can also see the Improving Your Concentration tool in our Active Reading and Note-making module (for undergraduate students).

Tips for reducing stress

VII. Reducing Stress

Many aspects of life at grad school may cause stress. One big stressor is trying to keep on top of the huge workload, which includes a never-ending pile of documents to read. Therefore, improving your reading skills, both speed and comprehension, might be one way to reduce your stress.

RELAX and have guilt-free play

  • Read for pleasure
  • Work as hard at play as you do at work
  • You will always have an ‘in-tray’ so do what you can today and don’t worry about tomorrow

For more information on stress management, see our Managing Stress at Graduate School module.

An excellent book outlining the importance of guilt-free play is Neil Fiore‘s 2007 book, The NOW Habit: A strategic program for overcoming procrastination and enjoying guilt-free play.