By Monica O’Rourke, 4th year Con-Ed History/English student
With the end of frost week and the realization that there’s more to being back at school than catching up with friends, the inevitable cycle of procrastination and cramming begins. Despite the well-intended New Year’s resolutions made on January 1st, it’s easy to fall back into bad habits such as putting off readings until the night before class. Luckily, that’s where Learning Strategies comes in.
Motivation is defined as, “the reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way,” and one of the biggest myths is that motivation will appear and allow you to do all of your work with a smile on your face.
Often, this just results in procrastination and panic. As humans, what makes us do something is the idea of the reward we will receive in the end; however, what most of us don’t realize is that that there are two types of rewards and one yields better results than the other. Extrinsic rewards are tangible things, such as your parents giving you money for a good grade. In other words, an extrinsic reward is an incentive, a false motivator. You’re doing the work for a material reward, not because you actually want to. This often means a job not done as well as it could have been if you were motivated by an intrinsic reward. While this type of reward is not tangible, it is a feeling you have inside you when you complete a task; be that task making you feel proud or satisfied or delighted, it is a feeling of elation you have within yourself. Now you may be wondering what motivation has to do with procrastination, and the answer is, a lot. People consider the mounting panic of procrastinating as motivation, however the reward for that is extrinsic (i.e. your teacher NOT giving you late marks).
The first step in making your resolution not to procrastinate is to acknowledge that it’s a habit and the most effective way to change a habit is to have a complete change of attitude and forming new habits.
Winston Churchill once said, “You will never reach your destination if you stop and throw stones at every dog that barks.”
Meaning, if you let yourself get distracted, you’ll never get to the end or your goal. This is common enough – often as students we have a million and two thoughts running through our heads and get easily distracted as we remember yet another thing we have to do this week. I find that the best thing for me to do is to have an empty sticky note beside me and when I’m doing my work, if I remember something I have to do, I write it down so I’m not stressing about remembering it and detracting from my readings.
Some other tips and tricks courtesy of the Queen’s SASS Learning Strategies website have some of my personal favourite anti-procrastinating tips including:
- Setting realistic goals (Once, I told myself I could do an entire psych module in a night- NOT possible, however, a single chapter might have been more doable)
- Create a weekly schedule (You get a visual of everything that is due for the week and what readings must be done when. I have an organizer that at the beginning of the semester I put down all my due dates and add readings throughout the semester)
- Watch out for the “downward spiral” that includes falling way behind in class (ESPECIALLY if the class is challenging for you, go in and talk to your professor or TA)
These are just some of the strategies, you can find more at: http://sass.queensu.ca/learningstrategies/motivation-and-procrastination/
And now approach the rest of the semester with the wise words of Michael Scott (Wayne Gretkzy) in mind: “You miss 100% of the shots you don’t take.” So approach the semester with a can-do attitude and your anti-procrastination steps as your guide to really, actually achieve your New Year’s Resolutions (for once).
For more anti-procrastination tips, check out the Peer Learning Assistant run event ProcrastiNOT: Find Your Procrastination Solution on January 29th from 1-6pm at Stauffer Library in the Speaker’s Corner.
By Satinder Kaur, 4th year Biochemistry student
After the glorious three week break we had for the holidays, syllabus week was a nice transition into school. Though I did have a professor who read the syllabus and quickly began the first chapter. But he showed us a Kermit meme and that made it okay. All jokes aside, as week two begins, I feel as if I am getting ready to run a marathon.
As the final semester of my undergraduate education begins, I find myself reflecting on the learning strategies I have applied to my school work. The one that stands out the most is creating a Weekly Schedule on Sunday nights. I have made one every week for as long as I can remember and I follow a series of steps.
- Class times. I begin by adding in all the hours I have class. My favourite colour is green, so my class blocks are green to get me excited about the upcoming week. It’s all about personalization!
- Health habits. This is where I schedule in exercise, lunch, dinner, and sleep. While I only need about twenty minutes for lunch, I leave an hour for dinner, sometimes two if I’m doing meal prep. I also give myself a cut off each night to ensure I get at least 8 hours of sleep!
- Work. I have a job that requires me to be in the office 20 hours a week. My set office hours are the same every week, so I like to schedule these in with a new colour!
- Other fixed commitments of that week. When I have meetings for group projects, a doctor’s appointment, or I’m having lunch with a friend, I schedule it in. These events are specific to one week but I make sure I add them in!
- Homework. On Sunday nights, I also make a major to do list for the upcoming week of school tasks. I then schedule them in based on when I need to complete tasks. For example, a discussion post due on Friday may be scheduled in for Wednesday afternoon, with an editing period on Thursday.
- Flex time. This time is for grocery shopping, laundry, hanging out with friends, or catching up on homework you may have missed during the week.
Everyone learns differently and creating a weekly schedule in this way is what works for me! Knowing your learning style and understanding the strategies that will help you succeed are ways to carry on doing well all throughout your school career.
Photo courtesy of Charles Smith under Flickr Creative Commons Attribution license 2.0.
By Ian Farndon, 4th year History/English student
In The Empire Strikes Back, Luke Skywalker visits the swampy home of Yoda to receive Jedi training. However, Luke swiftly becomes frustrated by his inability to quickly master the Force, leading him to gain a defeatist attitude that further hampers his efforts to improve himself. If you find yourself facing academic or non-academic setbacks, it is important to avoid getting yourself stuck in a rut, which could cause failure to become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Therefore, I recommend that you don’t follow Luke’s example, and instead approach challenges, or disappointments, with a “growth mindset.”
A growth mindset involves understanding that challenges and setbacks are stepping stones on your path to success, rather than testaments to an inability to achieve desired results. For instance, while you may have had a less-than-satisfactory outcome in the first semester, dwelling on any let-downs can foster an attitude of negativity and defeatism that will certainly not help you motivate yourself to do any better in second semester. Just look at Luke – when he interprets his training difficulties in a negative manner, he loses both faith in himself, and the motivation to continue training.
Having a growth mindset is not something that you can simply switch on overnight, because re-framing your self-expectations takes time. While it’s fine to hold yourself to a high standard of performance, in regards to academics or otherwise, you should recognize that you will most likely not be able to do everything perfectly the first attempt. Rather, it’s important to accept setbacks for what they are, and think about how you will work to improve for next time. For example, you could plan to ask for help and feedback from professors and TAs to ensure you understand their expectations for course work. Or, if you recognize what you need to improve on, you could actively seek to demonstrate these improvements in the next class assignment.
Having this positive mindset will make it easier, and certainly less stressful, to work towards whatever goals you set for yourself – whether you wish to lift your grades, or an X-Wing.
Photo courtesy of Kory Westerhold under Flickr Creative Commons Attribution license 2.0.
By Ann Choi, 4th Year Con-Ed History/English student
Today’s the second day of class, the first week of a new semester. You may be feeling a bit nervous (I thought this feeling of anxiety – would I make new friends? Do I look presentable on the first day? – would go away in the elementary school, but even at university it’s okay to feel a bit apprehensive) or determined to improve your grades for the new year. You may wonder, “But are my grades dependent on my resolution alone? Don’t I have to be super smart to do well at university?” However, the studies have shown that your optimism and time management skills are better predictors of the academic success than your IQ. So this may be the perfect place to start if your New Year’s resolution is to do well at school – your determination is the KEY!
One of the most important aspects of learning is that it’s not universal. It’s very personal. What works for one person may not work for all and it’s important to understand your own study habits. I entitled this blog post as “Find your MARK this new year” after watching a movie, Good Dinosaur because I thought it was a wonderful analogy for studying. Arlow, who is under-confident and is the smallest in the family, realizes that he can make his mark in his own way by discovering the way he works best. It’s same with studying – you can feel good about your studies and make your mark at university by understanding your learning styles.
Ah, but I know what learning styles are! You say. Aren’t there three learning styles: kinesthetic, visual, and auditory? It’s true that when many people think of learning styles, these three pop up. They are a useful indicator of how you like to study: kinaesthetic means that you prefer to use your hand and engage in activities as you study, visual means that you process information better through images, and auditory means your understanding improves through lectures or audios. However, this is not all. Learning is more than memorizing: It’s about making connections and creating your own meaning out of the materials.
Then how do I find my learning style? Well, there are three important questions to ask:
- How do you connect with materials? Do you prefer facts or theoretical concepts? Personally, I love theories. However, with the learners who prefer abstract concepts, they tend to get side tracked from their actual learning. Make sure you pay attention to details. If you are a fact-oriented learner, try to break down materials into smaller chunks and create structure to understand connections around different factual details.
- How do you create meaning? If you prefer learning in labs or in small groups, you may try teaching the materials to someone else and even talk to yourself at first to process the information before you do group work. Personally, I prefer independent study and find study notes such as Cornell note-taking methods and mind maps to be very helpful. You can access more information about different note-taking methods here: http://sass.queensu.ca/learningstrategies/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/09/Using-Graphic-Organizers-Mind-Maps-Cornell-and-More.pdf.
- What’s your pattern of learning? Some learners process information sequentially, which means that they build upon previous knowledge and value chronological order. Other learners understand new materials “globally” which means that they see big pictures and relationships of different concepts. If you are of a former type, create your study notes so that the details and steps that lead to new knowledge from the old are clear; if you are a latter type of a learner, ask “how” and “why” to make sure you understand all the details.
HOW you study and understanding yourself is one of the most important ways to feel satisfied about your studies at university. In 2017, I hope Arlow is not the only one who gets to make his mud-printed mark for his family: I hope you also find your own footprint of success at university.
Photo courtesy of Bago Games under Flickr Creative Commons Attribution license 2.0.
Welcome to exam season!
Student Academic Success Services has got you covered! Make an exam study schedule, or make a professional appointment with a learning strategist to hone your skills!
“Study smarter, not harder” is the cliche — but it’s true! Our “Preparing for and taking tests and exams” resources are thorough and will help you create a customized study schedule and teach you strategies for effectively preparing, no matter what type of test you face.
By Rachael Allen, 3rd year Kinesiology student
Every time exam season rolls around, I flash back to December of first year and cringe. I started out in sciences in first year, with the dreaded back-to-back-to-back exams leading to the big finale: MATH 121. I remember being so disciplined. I would arrive at Douglas Library and take the three flights of stairs down to the lowest level at 8:00am. I would work non-stop with the only breaks spent walking to refill my water bottle. I would do this until it was time to climb those three flights back up at 10:00pm, and emerge with 14 hours of studying under my belt.
Every day I would dedicate myself to this intense study hibernation, regardless of the level of sleep I got, regardless of whether I had just written an exam, and regardless of my mental well being. Sounds pretty neat, being able to sit down and focus for that amount of time while retaining the information? Not so neat though, when that focus disappeared and the burn out set it.
Finally, when the MATH 121 exam rolled around, I sat down at 9:00am and found myself completely distracted and unable to concentrate. I couldn’t recall the material I had studied and the reality was that I really didn’t care. I didn’t understand why my 40+ hours of “studying” left me so unprepared to write this final but I was too obsessed with the train I was boarding at 1:30 to really try. I ended up handing in my exam, incomplete and uninterested completing it, after only 90 minutes. I cabbed immediately to the train station, absurdly early, and sat for hours thinking of getting away from Queen’s and leaving the semester behind me.
Since this dreadful experience 2 years ago, I have since learned that semesters are a marathon, and should be treated as such. The 1:30 train isn’t going to change, no matter if you rush or take your time getting through the exam season. Burning out can be the result of poor study habits and not enough self-care.
Queen’s Student Academic Success Services and Learning Strategies has since been my primary influence in learning to avoid burn out. With resources like the exam study schedule, I am able to have scheduled breaks in my day, which allows for refocus and material consolidation while encouraging self-care. With emphasis on sleep, proper eating, and exercise, I have also learned that 14 hours of straight studying can be condensed into an efficient 9 hours when you give yourself opportunities to recharge.
Above all, don’t forget that your wellness is more important than your grades. Living like a zombie and burdening yourself with stress are not they way you should be experiencing life at Queen’s. By using the learning strategies resources, you’ll find yourself able to succeed academically while also remaining motivated and happy! 🙂
Good luck to all!
Photo courtesy of Queen’s University under Flickr Creative Commons Attribution license 2.0.
By: Sohaib Haseeb, 3rd year Life Sciences student
It’s that time of the year again – week 12, and exams. The last eleven weeks have taken a toll on us, and studying is not what we want to be doing right now. But exams are right around the corner, and exam stress is at its all-time high.
You may feel there’s nothing that can be done about the stress during this time. Assignments and papers all due around the same time, extracurricular responsibilities all cram up in week 12, and there’s not enough hours in the day to fit everything in.
It’s time to take charge. No matter how stressful life seems at the moment, there are steps that we can take to manage stress and take control:
1. Steps to maintain motivation
Have you ever sat down with a textbook and stared at the page blankly for hours until you finally give up? I know I have. Exam studying is one of the most daunting tasks for us undergrads – the stress of approaching exams, and the sense that we have to cram an overwhelming amount of information in our brains can have a huge toll on our motivation to study.
Here are some things you can try to boost concentration and motivation, and get on with the studying that needs to be done:
Small actions add up
As an ancient Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu once said, “the journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step” – this can go a long way. Begin with a small step – prepare your study space and remove distractions – stuff like that!
Practice SMART goals. Well-thought-out goals can serve as powerful motivation for us students. Write them down, avoid vagueness, and work towards completing them in a timely manner. They not only serve as objectives to keep you focused, but also provide an opportunity for extrinsic rewards.
Try something new
Don’t feel confined to the strategies you’ve always used. If something isn’t working, like a habit or a way of taking notes, try something else. Take things one at a time, and evaluate at the end of a task to ensure that you’ve completed the task to the best of your abilities
2. In the weeks before – Put exams into perspective
All exams are important, but when time is limited, prioritization is key. Knowing which exam to prioritize can vary from person to person, but some useful techniques are to determine the % value of the exam, and to calculate the existing grade up to this point, and then determine what grade is needed to maintain or reach your goal.
Study schedules are your friend. Download our Exam Prep study schedule and try to see if it works for you. If I were to go back in first year and tell my mini-me something to do, it would be to make study schedules, and to stick to them.
Join a study group and self-test each other using past exams from Queen’s Exam Bank, or make your own from class material.
3. Practice relaxation daily and always look on the positive side!
It’s all too easy to overlook your health and overwork yourself, and added stress certainly worsens the situation. Try deep breathing and muscle relaxation exercises every day, take breaks, or go out for a run if that’s your thing. Tell yourself you can do it, because you can! We’re all at Queen’s University, and that in itself is a big achievement! We are all trying our best to do the tasks at hand in the time given, and that’s all we can ask of ourselves.
4. Before and During the exam
Breathe! Drink water, or listen to music – go ahead and dance! You’ve done your best, prepared your hard, and this is the easy bit. Do the exam with confidence, and keep calm during the exam. If it works for you, set mini-breaks during the exam at specific points where you stop writing and take a break, and let your mind rest.
Don’t forget to reward yourself after the exam, and affirm your strengths and successes!
In the end, remind yourself that this won’t go on forever. Exam period is one of the most stressful times in our lives. Grab a friend and share your thoughts with them, they can probably relate very well. All you need to do is take action; we can control them, so why not do so right now and get through these exams – it’s the final leg of the race, there’s light at the end of the tunnel.
Photos courtesy of CollegeDegrees360 and Ray Morris, under Flickr Creative Commons Attribution license 2.0.
By: Julia Tighe, 3rd year Con-Ed/Health Studies student
Exams are about as scary as your dad doing a dab this holiday season. I understand, it has already been a long, long, LONG 11 weeks (plus 1 more for week 12) and now we have to stay for 2 weeks after that, which are the most dreaded weeks of the semester.
You may not be as caught up as you want to, maybe that quick cat nap turned into a semester long hibernation, OR you may be completely on top of it (yay! 🙂 ). Regardless which scenario you fit with it’s a difficult time for university students. Kraft Dinner sales rise, laundry piles grow exponentially, and Stauffer Library seems like a home away from home.
BUT, HOLD THE PHONE, none of that needs to happen! Those two weeks don’t have to be as scary as you think, IF you consider the 5 steps to a successful exam season:
STEP 1: KNOW WHAT YOU DON’T KNOW (and own it!)
I’ve done it before – lying to myself by saying that I totally know week 3 off by heart. When I glance over it for the exam I realize I totally knew it off by heart for the midterm. Step 1 to your best exam season yet is to acknowledge you need to review material, and do the review.
STEP 2: SPICE UP YOUR LIFE…WITH AN EXAM SCHEDULE!
The Spice Girls recommend it: scheduling your life is an important part of a successful exam season. We definitely do not want any exam to sneak up on you like those multiple 4-pieces from Lazy. What some people forget is that scheduling time to go to the gym or to FaceTime your dog is an important aspect to your exam success as well. The BEST template to create a plan for yourself can be found here.
STEP 3: EAT. SLEEP. EXAM. (go to the gym, call your mom, breathe). REPEAT.
One of my favorite exam study tricks is to wake up at the same time every day. Having exams at different times makes it difficult to establish a routine. Waking up at the same time allows you to have time to eat a healthy meal and then get to work around the same time each day! Your brain and body love routine. You’ll feel less lethargic and ready to study each day.
STEP 4: A repeat after me (song).
“I (insert your name here) am the best student at Queen’s University.” Now your turn, did you actually say it? Ok, do it for real. Good for you! This mindset is incredibly powerful to have. Allowing your ego to take over a little and telling yourself that you have done all that you can when going into an exam will make your mind clearer and produce the answer to that multiple choice question you can’t figure out. Just breathe, and remember: “I am the best student at QU”.
STEP 5: ~-~ oooooooommmmmmmm ~-~
The final step to your exam season success is to be calm. You have done an amazing job preparing and will rock your exams! Remember your growth mindset as well while working – you may not be rocking every step of the exam process from the get go but you will get there! Watch a TED talk on the growth mindset here.
If you are looking for even more resources or tips and tricks from other Peer Learning Assistants check out sass.queensu.ca! There are so many incredible peers who want to help you succeed.
I know you are going to rock your exams this season, because you took the time to get prepared in week 11! You are one step ahead of the exam game. Remember you are not your grades, you are way more than that. A successful exam season doesn’t mean straight As, your well-being is important as well. You can do this!
P.S. I hope you liked all the pictures of baby animals… It may or may not have been a secret ~.~ step 6 ~.~ to your fool proof plan: look at pictures of baby animals to destress 🙂
Photos courtesy of Niels Kliim, Taylor Bennett, Tambako The Jaguar, Anna Hull, and Nathan Rupert under Flickr Creative Commons Attribution license 2.0
By Chelsea Hall, 4th year Life Sciences student
For the past two years I have had the privilege to not only volunteer as a Peer Learning Assistant but also have had the pleasure to work as a Residence Don. Working as a residence don has afforded me a unique perspective and allowed me to witness time and time again the common struggles with academics that countless first year students face in the transition to university while living in residence. University residence is an environment like no other it can be loud, eventful, messy, frustrating, fun and overall incredibly distracting. Drawing from my knowledge of both residence and learning strategies I’ve included some tips and tricks below that can be useful in achieving academic success while living in residence.
1. Get out of Residence
Have you tried to be efficient and study in your room yet? Do you end up getting easily distracted by what’s going on around you or in the hallway? Do you end up lying on your bed only to drift off for a few hours or treat yourself to one too many episodes on NetFlix? If you have no issues in studying in residence then you have successfully mastered an art that few ever will. If you are like the rest of us and consistently struggle with establishing boundaries between social time and academics while in residence then that’s ok too! Getting out of residence and visiting a library (ie. Stauffer, Bracken, Douglas) or another study spot on campus helps make the most of your time and helps avoid distractions. Furthermore, if you need a break from campus then downtown Kingston has plenty of little coffee shops with WIFI where you can work and enjoy a change of scenery.
2. Make a Schedule and respect your boundaries
At University a weekly schedule and a term calendar are a must, but the wonderful thing is that schedules can take whatever format that optimizes your success (ie. online, agenda, fantastic peer learning assistant template etc.). However you choose to make your weekly schedule make sure that it is readily visible on a daily basis so that you are not just making a beautiful schedule but never consulting it. Furthermore, effectively establishing boundaries is one of the most overlooked yet difficult aspects of time management and something I have both witnessed and experienced struggling with myself. It sounds simple but establishing boundaries while following a weekly schedule is truly a fine balance; it’s the balance between committing yourself to your schedule and getting done what you plan to at a given time and being mindful that life happens and things do come up at the last minute. On great tip is to block in a reserve bank of time to finish academic assignments for the week this will ensure that you feel less guilty if something does come and you’re still accountable for your homework time.
3. Friends-they’ll be there for you
One of the most humbling lessons that I have had to learn at University is that no matter how independent or self-sustaining a person may be they will need a support network. The relationships you make are invaluable and residence is one of the best places to make friends from many different backgrounds and programs. Schedule social time into your calendar so that you can spend the time developing relationships without the overarching guilt that there is work that should be getting done instead.
Photo courtesy of Queen’s University under Flickr Creative Commons Attribution license 2.0
By Parker Nann, 3rd year Commerce student
Halfway through my very first semester at Queen’s, I was introduced to one of the simplest yet most challenging study strategies that I have come across: The Happiness Advantage. The idea appears basic: happy people are more successful in achieving their school, life, and personal goals. When I first encountered this strategy, it seemed so intuitive to me that I accepted it without objection. However, The Happiness Advantage challenges one of the most common perspectives that students hold about school: that working hard and persevering though school today, will bring success and happiness down the road. This perspective encourages us to surrender some of our happiness to our current duties, while convincing us that our future selves will thank us later for our early sacrifice. So we allow ourselves to be plunged into a mindset where our vision of future happiness dangles tantalizingly in front of us, so long as we can survive school long enough to grasp it.
But this formula is broken. When we become fixated with success, each time we succeed we simply change the bar of success to reflect our new aspirations. Achieving good grades only compels us to work towards better grades. So, while the pursuit of high goals is not in itself unhealthy, attaching our happiness to achieving progressively more improbable goals is, and prevents us from ever arriving at sustainable happiness.
The Happiness Advantage suggests an alternative progression: if we can generate happiness today, we have a better shot at success in the future. And this future success begets a cycle of happiness which, you guessed it, positions us for even more success. You are probably skeptical at this point, and should be, as success is not borne solely from a sunny outlook. Yet there is building scientific evidence about the influence that happiness has on personal effectiveness. The author of The Happiness Advantage researcher found that optimism and happiness in the workplace led to a 31% increase in productivity and a 37% increase in sales performance. The same researcher even found that physicians were 19% faster at reaching a correct diagnosis when happy compared to neutral, unhappy, or stressed.
We now know the importance of happiness, but is it possible to generate positivity amidst the stresses and challenges of school? Luckily, research demonstrates that positive thinking can be trained and improved. If we take the time to build positivity into our daily lives and actively think about how we are feeling, positivity can indeed become habitual. Let me share three techniques which can help boost your happiness over time.
- Pay attention to the good: dedicate five minutes of each day to reflect or write about a positive experience which made you feel grateful or happy that day. Forcing ourselves to remember and write about something positive forces us to identify and pay attention to the positive events in our daily lives. By selectively writing about positive experiences, we can re-train our minds to brew on positive experiences rather than the negative or stressful ones.
- Engage with your social networks: if you’re anything like me, you like to spend time with your friends. Spending time with your friends (but not too much time – everything in sensible moderation!), is healthy, important, and fun. However, facing stress, we too often (myself included) withdraw from our social supports and seclude ourselves to soldier through our academic challenges alone. We shouldn’t have to. Our social supports are critical to our health and are major predictors of our happiness and success. We are told to stop doing things we enjoy when our workload increases, but our social circles should not be neglected.
- Weekly 150: Okay, you have likely heard enough about this one from everyone at Queen’s, but the frequency which you receive this advice should give you a clue about its importance. In the simplest terms: exercise makes you happy. Doing even 15 minutes of light cardio a day is clinically proven to improve your mood and boost productivity.
There are an endless number of strategies to increase your happiness. I have given you only three strategies so that you can take small steps toward cultivating your current happiness and benefit from The Happiness Advantage. Don’t let their simplicity fool you- growing your happiness in an environment which encourages us to sacrifice it is more challenging that you may think! I still struggle with these strategies all the time, but I firmly believe that in the long run, cultivating, rather than sacrificing your happiness is worth it.
A note on mental health: despite our best efforts to practice these strategies, happiness can be elusive. If you feel that you are overwhelmed or are dissatisfied with the level of happiness that you feel do talk to someone who can help you. They know what they are doing. It’s worth it.
Queen’s Student Wellness Services: Counselling
Queen’s Student Wellness Services: Mental Health
Good 2 Talk
The content of this blog post is largely based on Shawn Anchor’s The Happiness Advantage: The Seven Principles of Positive Psychology that Fuel Success and Performance at Work.
Achor, S. (2010). The happiness advantage: The seven principles of positive psychology that fuel success and performance at work. New York: Broadway Books.
Photo courtesy of Greg Wagoner under Flickr Creative Commons Attribution license 2.0