MLA Reference Guide
The following charts provide a general sense of which information to include and in what order to include it. More comprehensive examples can be found in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
|Quote directly||“Semicolons are often undervalued” (Markham 172).|
|Cite in the essay two or more sources by the same author||“Semicolons are often undervalued” (Markham, Grammar 172).|
|Cite an edited, multi-volume source||“Clearly, semicolons have been undervalued for many centuries” (Markham et al., eds. 2: 172-3).|
|Cite Web journal||Give semicolons a chance” (Markham, “Comma Splice Crimes, para. 7).|
|Cite poetry||“Artful link/ Of independent clauses” (Markham 23).|
|Cite a play||“I’ve had enough of this semicolon nonsense. I’m leaving” (Markham 3.1.46).|
|Cite an indirect source (quote an author whose words appear in a second source)||In Memoirs, Markham confesses “I never understood parentheses” (qtd. in Caffrey 63).|
Works Cited: Books
|One author||Markham, Howard. Grammar: The Key to Happiness
and Power. Kingston: Stauffer Press, 1982. Print.
|Anthology or compilation||Caffrey, Liz, ed. The Complete Howard Markham. Kingston: Stauffer Press, 1999. Print.|
|Multiple authors||Caffrey, Liz and Howard Markham. Reinventing Grammar. Kingston: Stauffer Press, 1996. Print.|
|Editions other than the first||Markham, Howard. Grammar: Key to Happiness and Power. 3rd ed. Kingston: Stauffer Press, 1989. Print.|
|Introduction (also applies to foreword or preface)||Caffrey, Liz. Introduction. Memoirs. By Howard Markham. Kingston: Stauffer Press, 1998. 2-7. Print.|
|A work in an anthology||Markham, Howard. “Comma Splices and Other Crimes.” Minor Consequences. Ed. Liz Caffrey. Kingston: Stauffer Press, 1995. 47-61. Print.|
|Translation||Marceau, Julie. Language Anxiety. Trans. Liz Caffrey. Kingston: Stauffer Press, 1991. Print.|
|e-book* (Kindle, Nook, iPad)
*provide type of electronic file, e.g., Kindle file, PDF file
|Marvin, James. Exciting Citing. Toronto: Acme, 2014. Kindle file.|
|Article in a journal||Markham, Howard. “Crimes of the Comma.” Journal of Canadian Languages 24.2 (1986): 67-81. Print.|
|Article in a newspaper||Caffrey, Liz. “Small Publishers Hit the Big Time.” Kingston This Week, 14 May 1995: A12-13. Print.|
|Article in a magazine published monthly||Caffrey, Liz. “Small Publishers Hit the Big Time.” BackIssues. Oct. 1995: 14-17. Print.|
1) Name of author, editor, etc.; 2) title of work; 3) title of Web site; 4) publisher or sponsor; 6) date of publication; 7) medium (Web); 8) date of access. Note that the url is optional.
|Work cited only on the web||Markham, Howard. “Comma Splice Crimes.” Journal of Canadian Languages. MLA, 25 Sept. 2007. Web. 5 June 2009.|
|Publication in online database||Markham, Howard, and Liz Caffrey. “Lost Points.” Grammarworld 46.4(2009) 17-18. LexisNexis. Web. 5 June 2009.|
|Scholarly journal on the Web||Caffrey, Liz. Rev. of Voices of Experience, ed. Rex Murphy, FAQs and
Arguments.” Grammar Forum Home Page 3.2 (2007):1-37. Web. 9
|Film||Bad Fiction. Dir. Quentin Caffrey. Perf. John Markham and Uma
Caffrey. Educational Media Resources, 1997. Film.
|Television||“Bad Punctuation.” Social Crimes. Narr. John Markham. Dir. Liz
Caffrey. Arts and Entertainment Network. 6 Apr. 2006. WCBS.
|Lecture or Speech||Caffrey, Quentin. “Grammar on Film.” Annual General Meeting.
Society for Technical Details. Kingston Public Library, Kingston. 13
October 2009. Lecture.