Writing Topic: Chicago Reference Guide

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“Chicago Style” uses a footnote or endnote style of referencing. Superscript numbers in your text direct the reader to a bibliographic entry, either at the bottom of the page or in a Notes section at the end of your paper. Often a Bibliography section follows. This style is preferred by many instructors in the Department of History at Queen’s. Check with your instructor if you are uncertain of the referencing requirements in your course.

To use this style in Microsoft Word 2007, go to the References tab Footnotes, which will allow you to insert notes in your text. References Citations & Bibliography will help you in setting up and formatting your bibliography.

The models below show formats for citing a source for the first time. In additional references to the same book, article, etc., use only the author’s last name and a page number, e.g., 3Babington, 36. If you are citing two works by Babington, include the title as well, e.g., 7Babington, Meeting and Greeting, 316. If you are citing two writers both named Babington, include the initial to avoid confusion, e.g., 16R. Babington, Hunting and Gathering, 188.

Some Models for Footnotes or EndnotesBooksAnthologiesArticlesBook ReviewsEncyclopedia EntriesUnpublished Materials (dissertation or thesis)Web siteEmail

Some Models for Footnotes or Endnotes

The first references to secondary sources include full details. The rules vary depending on what kind of source you are referring to. The form also changes slightly between the note and the way the entry appears in your bibliography. Note that numbers in the main text of a paper should be in superscript (e.g., 1), but, in the notes themselves, the note numbers should be full-size and followed by a period.


Book by a single author, first edition
Later edition of a book

Book by two authors
Book by two authors
Book by three authors
Book by more than three authors
Book by an unknown author (anonymous)
Book with both an author and an editor or translator
Reprinted book


Entire Work
Chapter in an edited collection


Article in a journal
Newspaper article
On-line journal article

Book Reviews

14. Douglas Babington, review of The Limits of Patience, by Martina Hardwick, Canadian Journal of Sociololinguistics 91, no. 5 (2001): 727.

Bibliography entry:

Babington, Douglas. Review of The Limits of Patience, by Martina Hardwick, Canadian Journal of Sociololinguistics 91, no. 5 (2001).


Encyclopedia Entries

15. Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. “Otters,” R. May and I. Luyt.

Bibliography entry:

Encyclopedia Britannica. 11th ed. s.v. “Otters,” R. May and I. Luyt. [The “s.v.,” for Latin sub verbo, means “under the word.”]

Unpublished Materials (dissertation or thesis)

16. Pamela Robinson, “On the Foundations of Phonological Theory” (Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1997), 719.

Bibliographic entry:

Robinson, Pamela. “On the Foundations of Phonological Theory.” Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1997.

Web site

  1. McGill-Queen’s University Press. http://mqup.mcgill.ca/ (accessed 21 January 2009).


  1. Christina Archibald Chant, e-mail message to author, 12 June 2009. (Usually is not included in bibliography).


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